Sony Ericsson Mix Walkman Best Choice For Music Lovers

Sony Ericsson Mix Walkman is highly entertaining device available with walkman features. It is available in the color combinations of – Black with pink cloud band, Black with pink band, Black with green bird band and Black with green band.

Great Outfit

The Sony Ericsson Mix Walkman is amazingly dimensioned in the measurement of 95.8 x 52.8 x 14.3 mm and is just 88 grams in weight. The stylish outlook of the phone is featured with the 3.0 inches (~155 ppi pixel density) TFT capacitive touch screen that can display 256K colors in the resolution of 240 x 400 pixels. The handset is further decorated with the features of Scratch-resistant surface, Accelerometer sensor for auto-rotate and Proximity sensor for auto turn-off.

Connecting Powers

The Sony Ericsson Mix Walkman caters the user with the connecting features of GPRS, EDGE, 3G HSDPA, WLAN Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and USB. Users can send and receive data with the help of these features. Moreover, there is HTML Web browser and GPS facility available to provide further assistance to the users.

Entertainment

The Sony Ericsson Mix Walkman serves mind-blowing sound through the installed Walkman player (MP3/eAAC+/WMA/MP4/H.263) and the stereo FM radio with RDS. Users are also provided with the opportunity of capturing pictures through the 3.15 MP camera which ensures image clarity in the resolution of 2048×1536 pixels. Video recording is also done in the Sony Ericsson Mix Walkman. Additionally, the widget allows you to play games. Furthermore, there are features that render great help to the users such as SNS integration, SenseMe, TrackID music recognition, Document viewer, messaging, Voice memo and Predictive text input.

Large Memory and Supportive Battery

The Sony Ericsson Mix Walkman stores 256 MB (100 MB user available) of data in its internal memory. Also, the device is allowed to store up to 32GB via memory card attachment. Moving ahead, the Sony Ericsson Mix Walkman is installed with standard battery which is an excellent survivor and admits the stand-by time up to 465 hours, talk time up to 9 hours 40 minutes and music play up to 13 hours. Listening to music is not limit by battery now.

Country Music Quotes For National Country Music Day

National Country Music Day is coming up and these 11 country music quotes are a great way to celebrate. Country music fans make up some of the most die-hard and loyal fans in the world of music. These 11 country music quotes go out to you.

1. “I was born country and that’s what I’ll always be, like the rivers and the woodlands wild and free. I got a hundred years of down home running through my blood. I was born country and this country’s what I love. ~ Alabama

2. “Americana picture of a people proud and free. Americana I’ll keep holding to the dream. You’re still what living means to me.” ~ Moe Bandy

3. “I thank you, Lord, that I’m placed so well, that you’ve made my freedom so complete, that I’m no slave to whistle, clock or bell, nor weak eyed prisoner of Wall Street.” ~ Johnny Cash

4. “There’s a lathered sorrel stallion running through the Joshua trees and a young man in the saddle with his coat tails in the breeze. He’s got a six gun on his right hip and a rifle at his knees and he’s dealing in a game that he can’t win.” ~ Charlie Daniels

5. “Song, song of the south. Sweet potato pie and I shut my mouth. Gone, gone with the wind. There ain’t nobody looking back again.” ~ Alabama

6. “You don’t see no city when you look at me cause country’s all I am. I love runnin’ barefoot through the old cornfields and I love that country ham. Well you say I’m made just to fit your plans but there’s a barnyard shovel pick your hands. If your eyes are on me you’re lookin’ at country.” ~ Loretta Lynn

7. “These boots are made for walking, and that’s just what they’ll do. One of these days these boots are gonna walk all over you.” ~ Nancy Sinatra

8. “The spirits, they intoxicate me. I watched them infiltrate my soul. They try to say it’s too late for me. Tell my guns I’m coming home. I swear I’m gonna live forever. Tell my maker he can wait. I’m riding somewhere south of heaven. Heading back to Santa Fe. It’s judgment day in Santa Fe.” ~ Bon Jovi

9. “It’s the hillbilly rock, beat it with a drum. Playin’ them guitars like shootin from a gun. Keepin’ up the rhythm, steady as a clock. Doin’ a little thing called the hillbilly rock.” ~ Marty Stuart

10. “Take the very breath you gave me. Take the heart from my chest. I’ll gladly take her place if you’ll let me. Make this my last request. Take me out of this world. God, please don’t take the girl.” ~ Tim McGraw

11. “Promise me, son, not to do the things I’ve done. Walk away from trouble if you can. It wont mean you’re weak if you turn the other cheek. I hope you’re old enough to understand: Son, you don’t have to fight to be a man.” ~ Kenny Rogers

When it comes to country music, you either love it or you hate it — but even those who profess to hate country music can be found listening to it in private when they think no one is watching. This National Country Music Day, let’s give country music its due. These 11 country music quotes are a great way to start.

Wedding Bookmarks Inspired By Music

Music inspired bookmarks aren’t just for musicians. If you just love music, wedding favor bookmarks are an excellent yet inexpensive choice for from-the-heart wedding favors that show your love for music as much as your love for your new spouse and your family and friends.

Colorful wedding bookmarks with designs of musical notes also depict the peace and harmony that the two of you share with each other; that your two hearts beat as one in perfect harmony.

And what better way to share your love and happiness with your closest friends and family than by giving them a thank you gift that will be a keepsake and reminder of the love they shared with you on your wedding day. Personalized bookmark favors will help you share your joy and gratitude in an affordable yet elegant way.

So if you are a musician or just love music, or you and your new spouse just “make beautiful music together,” there are a variety of ways in which you can incorporate music inspired bookmarks into your wedding theme. And wedding favor bookmarks blend in smoothly with any musical inspired wedding theme.

In fact, this is a fun and thoughtful way to add harmony to your wedding theme. After all, music a common thread in most traditional wedding ceremonies, from the moment the bride walks in through the church door to the time when the newlyweds bid farewell to go on their honeymoon.

Wedding favor bookmarks, with music as their inspiration, can be wonderful mementos of the music in your wedding. Whenever you or your guests see these inspirational keepsake bookmarks, even years later, you will be reminded of the bridal procession, the First Dance and a variety of songs heard during the wedding ceremony and reception.

Music inspired bookmarks can be designed in a wide variety of styles to blend in with your wedding theme. You can design bookmarks with musical notes and symbols, a sampling of musical instruments or really anything that expresses the musician or music lover in you and your future spouse.

You can also design bookmarks that coordinate with the rest of the wedding stationery like the invitations and programs or other favors that make up your particular theme. For example, if your wedding favors consist of personalized CDs with some of your favorite songs, complement that favor with a specially designed bookmark with the lyrics of your wedding song or a special poem or phrase printed on it. Guaranteed it will be one of the most memorable and yet most practical favors that your guests will remember long after your wedding.

And since music inspired bookmarks are such an elegant and coordinated printable piece, you can even accent your table centerpieces or place setting decorations with them. Some other ideas to coordinate your love of music in with personalized wedding bookmarks are to give them as save-the-dates announcements before your wedding invitations, going-away favors, and even thank-you notes to your guests and wedding party attendants.

The Most Colorful Underground Music Subcultures Of The Last Decade

Half of the fun of the music world is the fans of the actual musicians. Concerts and other music-related gatherings make for great people-watching, and certain underground music groups and scenes draw super-devoted fans.

The past decade has given us a number of underground music-related subcultures that stand out with their wild looks. Here are some of the most colorful underground music subcultures around.

Ravers: Ravers first appeared in the late ’80s and ’90s, but are again enjoying a renaissance with the renewed popularity of electronic sounds in the underground music world. Individuality is key, though the new crop of ravers favor more revealing outfits than their earlier counterparts.

Skinny jeans are more common now, though fluorescent colors, glitter, and anything furry and/or plastic are again popular. They can be found at underground music parties and festivals featuring the latest DJs.

Cybergoths: Cybergoths are part raver, part ’90s-style goth. Their look is similarly fluorescent, tight, and high-tech like ravers, but with a darker twist. They favor underground music with a more aggressive bent, often electronic, though some favor more traditionally goth types of music including underground rock.

Popular accessories include large, fake hair ponytails for women, and industrial goggles for men. Cybergoth fashion is also influenced by fetish wear and can often include latex and vinyl clothing. They can be found at underground rock concerts, raves, or specialized clubs.

Steampunks: Steampunks can listen to underground rock or a number of other varities of music, but they’re distinguished by their totally unique dress. Steampunks try to re-create Victorian-era futurism, favoring a mix of late-1800s style with anachronistic sci-fi elements. Steampunks favor making many of their clothes and accessories by hand for maximum uniqueness.

Scene Kids: This look is one of the most notorious trends of the past decade, and first became noticeable on social networking sites and underground rock shows. Scene kids usually like various forms of underground rock, though they may like other kinds of underground music like techno.

This look is waning in popularity but its influence in underground rock circles remains in the still-remaining trend of heavy eye makeup and big hair.

Juggalos: Juggalos are one of the most misunderstood subcultures around, but this group of music fans is also one of the most strongly connected.

Juggalos largely base their fandom around the Detroit horror-rap duo the Insane Clown Posse, and other underground music artists on its record label, Psychopathic Records. Juggalos like many underground rock groups as well, usually on the heavier end of the spectrum.

Juggalos, like the other subcultures on this list, also stand out with their self-presentation. The juggalos look mixes hip-hop and underground rock styles, but is most usually identified by clown-like face paint in the style of ICP. Juggalos’ hairstyles, too, can often be brightly colored, and tiny braids and spiky styles are popular.

However, juggalos don’t have too many hard-and-fast clothing rules, and individuality is encouraged. They can be found at underground rock and hip-hop shows by like-minded artists.

Pop Music Hits – Not What It Used To Be

Pop music hits over the generations has really changed immensely and no more so than in the last five years. Throughout the evolution of popular music up until the last 20 years pop music usually encompassed only one genre of music. Take into consideration Baroque, Renaissance, and Classical music. The music was by different composers but stayed well within the same type of musical category. When recorded music came onto the scene and began being broadcasted over radio waves the transmission of pop music hits became different but not it overall mandate which was that it still retained its origin in one type of music.

Think about the advent of jazz during the early part of the 20th century. Jazz was prevalent for a while as the main type of pop music. Anything you heard would have a jazz feel to it. We’re talking pop jazz here not the blues, the blues although popular amongst musicians themselves were more of an influential genre than a popular one. Then of course there was rock and roll which really dominated the pop music hit culture until the advent of Motown and R&B music.

Rock and roll and R&B dominated pop music until Disco came along and then to a small extent country music gained some popularity as a main stream genre. The 70′s was a mixed bag of rock, R&B, ballads and country music, mixed in with a little kitsch. Remember, CW McCall? Rock and R&B still dominated though showing its resilience right up until the late 1980′s when Rap came onto the scene. The mix of pop music hits began to change a bit. Rock and roll was being knocked out a bit by Rap and R&B and was no longer the dominant force in pop.

Today, pop music hits has become an amalgamation of all the music genres. You can have a country song, R&B song, and Rap songs all on one pop chart. Indeed, even radio stations have changed around their formats to be more ubiquitous and less focused on only one kind of music. The influences are all still there thanks to rock and roll but the cadence and tunes themselves have changed and transmogrified into the mix of pop music we have adopted in the last five years. Like everything pop music has progressed and expanded exponentially in the 21st century most of which has occurred just in the last five years.

Biotechnology in Conservation of Agricultural Environment

Biotechnology in Conservation of Agricultural Environment

K. Sarala, Senior Scientist (Biotechnology) Central Tobacco Research Institute, Rajahmundry-533 105, A.P.

Increase in crop yield in agriculture in 1960s, in India, was mainly due to introduction of new high yielding varieties. This has necessitated intensive use of agro-chemicals (mineral fertilizers and pesticides). However, the increase in agri-inputs was not directly proportional to the yields realized. During 1946-1965, the chemical (fertilizers and pesticides) input consumption was 87.0 Million Metric Tonnes (MMT) and food production 90 MMT; where as in 1998-2001, chemical input consumption was 1000 MMT and food production 220 MMT. Thus, when compared to 1946-1965, a 12 fold increase of chemical fertilizer consumption resulted in only 2.5 fold increase of food production. These figures indicate that for each unit of additional food produced higher amount of chemical inputs were utilized (Alvares, 1999; http:/indiabudget.nic.in; www.photius.com). The added inputs especially inorganic fertilizers, pesticides and weedicides have led to environmental problems. Progressive mechanization and mono-culture are other features that were added to Indian agriculture scenario after green revolution.

As a consequence of intensive agriculture natural resources were depleted, soils lost their natural fertility, soil microflora affected adversely, soil erosion increased and sudden and frequent apparition of new pests and diseases occurred. Excess use of fertilizers also spoiled soil health and adversely altered nutrient dynamics in the soil. Indiscriminate and injudicious use of pesticides contaminated the surrounding atmosphere, killed beneficial insects, soil micro flora and fauna and contaminated ground water. In addition to pest resurgence and new biotype / pest development minor pests became major pests and pests developed resistance to regularly used pesticides. All these things disturb the environmental balance. The present paper deals with applications of Biotechnology in alleviating these affects.

Plant Biotechnology

Plant biotechnology is a revolutionary new field that harnesses the knowledge gained over more than half a century of basic plant research to the benefit of man kind. Agriculture is already realizing huge benefits from improved crops developed through biotechnology, which shows remarkable resistance to insect damage, markedly reduced dependence on herbicides, improved yield levels, higher photochemicals etc.

Agricultural biotechnology helps to alleviate the above ill effects of intensive agriculture through the development of bio-fertilizers, bio-pesticides, and disease and pest resistant varieties, and genotypes with higher water and nutrient use efficiency. All these aspects are discussed below.

Biofertilisers

Some alternatives to the use of mineral fertilizers are green manures, composts and bioearths, earth worm manure, crop and agro industrial residues and biofertilizers.

The native soils harbor microorganisms like bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, algae, protozoa etc. These microorganisms enrich the nutrient quality of soil. Plants have a number of relationships with these fungi, bacteria, and algae. Few of the useful microorganisms can be produced in the form of Bio-fertilizers and added to the soil for improving the soil fertility and plant nutrient uptake.

Bio-fertilizers are the preparations containing live or latent cells of efficient strains of nitrogen fixing, phosphate solubilizing or cellulolyotic micro-organisms used for application to seed or composting areas with the objective of increasing the numbers of such micro-organisms and accelerating those microbial processes which augment the availability of nutrients that can be easily assimilated by plants(Ghosh, 2003). Some of the microorganisms being used as biofertilisers and their uses are given in Table 1. Table 1. Biofertilizers and their utilities S.No.Bio-fertilizerutility 1.RhizobiumFix atmospheric nitrogen in symbiotic association with legume plants forming nodules in roots (stem nodules in Sesabaniam rostrata) 2.AzotobacterBeneficial to cereals, millets, vegetables, cotton and sugarcane. It is free living and non-symbiotic nitrogen fixing organism produces certain substances good for the growth of plants and antibodies that suppress many root pathogens 3.AzospirillumNitrogen-fixing microorganisms beneficial for non-leguminous plants also produce growth promoting substances. 4.Blue Green Algae (BGA)Photosynthetic nitrogen fixers and are free living. Found in abundance in India. Add growth-promoting substances including vitamin B12, improve the soil’s aeration and water holding capacity and add to biomass when decomposed after life cycle. 5.AzollaAn aquatic fern found in small and shallow water bodies and in rice fields. It has symbiotic relation with BGA and can help rice or other crops through dual cropping or green manuring of soil. 6.Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria(PSB) The PSB are life forms that can help in improving phosphate uptake of plants in different ways. The PSB also has the potential to make utilization of India’s abundant deposits of rock phosphates possible, much of which is not enriched

In India, total Biofertilizer production capacity of public and private sector units is 18200 tonnes and total estimated Biofertilizer production is 10,000 tones during 2006-07. The Biofertilizer demand for the year2011 has been estimated at 30,000 tonnes by a recent expert committee constituted by the Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers. This clearly indicated that there is a large scope of biofertilisers industry in India.

Integrating biologicals in pest management

The adverse affects caused by excess use of pesticides can be reduced by following integrated pest management (IPM) approach i.e. integrating chemicals with biologicals in the pest management. This approach not only reduces the crop losses due to pests but also make agriculture more sustainable. Botanical pesticides and biocontrol agents offer immense scope in IPM

Biopesticides

Biopesticides are biorational and help to create Natural epizootics. They are inherently less harmful than conventional pesticides. They suppress, rather than eliminate, a pest population. Biopesticides are effective and often quickly biodegradable, present no residue problems and mostly self perpetuating.

Biopesticides, particularly microbial biopesticides, have virtually all the health safety and environmental properties that one would desire in a pesticide. The ecological fallacy and the individualistic fallacy need to be studied in detail.

Microbial insecticides are come from naturally-occurring bacteria, fungi, viruses (Ramarethinam, 2006). Various details of biopesticides including mechanism, pests and crops etc. are given in Table 2.

Table 2. Biopesticides their source and mechanism in pest control

Biopesticide type SourceNature/organismMechanismUsed againstCrops benefited Natural productPlant-Neem Vitex GarlicBiochemicalsAntifeedant, growth regulation, oviposition and mating disruptionInsect pestHorticultural, plantation and plain crops MicrobialsBacteria Bacillus thuringiensis(Bt) InfectionInsect pests B. sphaericus, PseudomonasAntibiosisDisease VirusNuclear polyhedrosis viruses, Granulosis virusesInfection resulting in epizooticsInsect pest FungiBeauveria, Metarhizium, Paecilomyces, NomuraeaInfection resulting in epizooticsInsect pests Trichoderma GliocladiumAntagonism and AntibiosisFungal disease of plants ProtozoaNosema, Thelohania, VairimorphaEpizooticsInsect pests PheromonesPheromonesBiochemicalsMating disruption, lure and kill, or insect monitoring strategiesInsect pest Genes or Plant-pesticide :Desired genes from a known sourceBiochemicalsConfer tolerance of herbicide application or resistance to attack by viruses or insectsInsect pest and disease

Market potential of biopesticides in India

The domestic market of biopesticides is in infant stage still – despite decades of existence, biopesticides are considered as marginal products. Virtually bereft of buyers and sellers. Awareness about the advantages of biopesticides is abysmally low as compared to the west,” this is affecting their demand adversely. Manufacturers claim that the projected demand for biopesticide has failed to become a reality. Rough estimates by the experts indicated a less than 2 per cent market share for Biopesticides in India (Agriculture today, Jan, 2005).

Agricultural Biotechnology – Varietal Development

Using different biotechnological techniques varieties having higher yields, disease and pest resistance, fertilizer responsiveness, herbicide tolerance, higher water/fertilizer use efficient, drought resistance etc can be developed. Biotechnology offers various advantageous over conventional breeding in developing crop varieties (Table 3). It employs novel technologies for creating variability, gene transfer, selection of segregating generations, transgenic development etc. Time taken for breeding a variety can be substantially reduced through biotechnology approach. Gene silencing (“switching off” of a gene by a mechanism other than genetic modification) and gene attenuation (to stop translation of an mRNA of a gene when certain conditions are not met) strategies can be employed to develop desirable genotypes.

Table 3. Agricultural Biotechnology vs. conventional breeding in varietal development

S.NoParameterAgricultural BiotechnologyConventional Breeding 1Creation of variabilitySomaclonal variationCreate through hybridization of parents Gamato clonal variation Proto clonal variation In vitro mutations 2Gene transferInter specific Mostly intra-specific, rarely inter-specific Inter generic 3Selection In vitro selectionPhenotypic selection Marker assisted selection 4GenesIsolated genesUses available variability Synthetic genes 5Gene transferAgro bacterium MediatedCrossing Gene gun Protoplast Fusion 6Time taken for breedingCan be reducedFairly long 7Trait expressionGene silencingCan’t be used Gene attenuation etc.,

Biotech crops in the world

Number of crop varieties were developed using various biotechnological approaches. Among them, Flavr savr tomato is the first transgenic crop released for commercial cultivation in USA in 1995. Later, number of pest and disease resistant varieties were released in cotton, maize, potato, soybean, tomato etc in different countries. Most of the cases the genes are cry genes conferring resistance to lepidopteron pests followed by viral genes. Pest resistance varieties substantially reduce the amount of pesticide use, there by avoids environmental problems.

From 1996-2007, global biotech crop area increased from 1.7 m ha to 114.3 m ha. 23 countries are growing biotech crops viz. soybean, cotton, maize and canola, 13 biotech mega countries growing 50,000 ha or more of biotech crops. The area covered by biotech crops in industrial countries is more compared to developing countries. These statistics indicates the increased awareness of the world farmers about biotech crops (James, 2007).

Biotech crop status in India

Many public and private sector institutions are involved in the development of biotech crop varieties in India. Biotechnology research in India is funded primarily by government agencies such as DBT, CSIR, ICAR and ICMR.

Regulations in India

Development and cultivation of transgenic varieties are raising many environmental concerns. In view of this, transgenic variety in any crop is released once it satisfies all environmental concerns. Before release they will be thoroughly tested for their effect on soil flora and fauna, allergenicity, toxicology etc. In India, Department of Biotechnology in Department of Science and Technology and Ministry of Environment and Forests are responsible for implementing bio-safety regulations with in the country. The regulation of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in India has been subjected to the rules framed by the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MOEF) in 1989(GOI, 1989). These rules, which were part of the Environmental (Protection) Act of 1986, defined implementing structures for conducting research and for the commercial applications of GMOs. Department of Biotechnology formulated guidelines for conducting research in transgenic plants (GOI, 1990 1994 and 1998).

Govt. of India has evolved regulatory mechanisms for the development and evaluation of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs). Various bio-safety committees, starting right from the institute where the research is going on to District and State, are in operation to monitor the safety of GMOs. GM crop regulatory structure in India consists of the following six committees. First three are under the Department of Biotechnology (DBT), next one under the MOEF and the last two operate at sub-federal levels closer to the actual site of GM crop field trials.

Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee (RDAC): Reviews developments in biotechnology at national and international levels and recommends suitable and appropriate safety regulations

Review Committee on Genetic Manipulation (RCGM): Monitors safety-related aspects of ongoing research projects and activities involving genetically engineered organisms.

Institutional Biosafety Committee (IBSC): Constituted by the institution conducting research that handles micro-organisms/genetically-engineered organisms.

The Genetic Engineering Approval Committee (GEAC): Based in MoEF and gives approvals for activities involving large-scale commercial use and release of hazardous micro organisms including imports of GMOs and recombinants

The State Biotechnology Coordination Committee (SBCC): Nodal agency at the State-level to assess damages, if any, from the release of GMOs.

The District Level Biotechnology Committee (DLC): Monitors safety regulations in installations engaged in the use of GMOs and hazardous substances at District level.

Steps in GM plant commercialization process:

In India, a transgenic variety is developed under the close supervision of different regulatory bodies’ right from lab and greenhouse experiments to its approval for commercial production (Table 4). This elaborated exercise helps to assess their possible impact on environment. In case of any adverse impact that particular line will be withdrawn before release. Only lines that don’t have any impact will be considered for release based on their agricultural advantage.

Table 4. GM plant commercialization process

Steps in GM plant commercialization process Data generated at this step(more can be requested if needed)Who approves 1. Lab & greenhouse experiments Rationale for development of GM plant Cloning strategy Characteristics of expression vectors, inserted genes, promoters Transformation/cloning method Genetic analysis of transgene Biochemistry of expressed gene Compositional analysis Description of host plant, geographical distribution in country of origin, Back crossing duration, seed setting characteristics, germination rates, phenotypic characteristics, target gene efficacy tests Observations about implications of toxicity & allergenicityIBSC risk category I & II RCGM risk category III 2. Contained open field trials & generation of biosafety data Germination rates & phenotypic characteristics Studies of gene flow, invasiveness, weed formation Implications of out crossing Susceptibility to diseases & pests Toxicity & allergenicity of plants/fruits/seeds Food/feed safety evaluation in animalsIBSC/RCGM 3. Multi-location trials Agronomic advantageRCGM/GEAC 4. Large-scale field trials Agronomic advantageGEAC 5. Environmental, food & agronomic approval GEAC 6. Variety registration* Agronomic advantageICAR, National and State Seed Quality control agencies 7. Approval for commercial production GEAC

Biotech crops cultivated in India

On 26th March 2002, Genetic Engineering Approval Committee (GEAC) for the first time approved three Bt cotton hybrids (MECH 12 Bt, MECH 162 Bt and MECH 184 Bt) of MAHYCO for commercial cultivation in India. RCH2 Bt hybrids of Rasi seeds were approved on 1st April 2004 in Central and Southern part of India.

Bt-cotton was first planted in India in 2002. Following its success, the area under this crop and the number of farmers who adopted this technology increased significantly from year to year as shown in the Table 5 below:

Table 5: Area under Bt-cotton in India (2002 to 2007) YearTotal cotton area in hectaresBt-cotton area in hectaresBt-cotton area in acres% area occupied by Bt-cottonNo. of Bt-farmers 200287,30,00029,00072,0000.320,000 200376,70,00086,0002,13,0001.175,000 200476,30,0005,53,00013,66,0007.33,50,000 200589,20,00012,67,00031,31,00014.210,00,000 200691,58,00038,00,00094,00,00041.523,00,000 200794,00,00062,00,000*153,20,00066.038,00,000 Source: http://www.cbd.int/doc/external/mop-04/fbae-cotton-en.doc Thus, in about 6 years, the area under Bt-cotton has increased by more than 210 times to record 6.2 m ha and the number of Bt-farmers by 190 times to reach 3.8 m in 2007. Further, Bt-cotton has occupied 66% of the 9.4 m ha of the total cotton area in India in 2007.

Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry India (ASSOCHAM) and IMRB International study on Bt cotton in India revealed that cotton farmers have earned an additional income of Rs 7,039 crore in 2006 after a 50 per cent increase in yield due to use of Bt cotton seed. Introduction of two stacked genes into Bollgard II Bt cotton has saved pesticide use to the tune of Rs 1,600 per acre. Bollgard II Bt cotton has the advantage of controlling both bollworms and the sucking pest, Spodoptera, while Bt cotton (with one gene) controls only bollworm. Bollgard II Bt cotton was allowed for commercial cultivation in central and western India in 2006. In view of the increased crop yields of BT cotton, India turned into a net cotton surplus country from a net importer in four years.

Number of pesticides sprays and amounts spent pesticide per acre were reduced when Bt cotton and Bollgard II Bt cotton were cultivated. Additional profit of Rs. 7,757/- and Rs. 10,352/- per acre, respectively, were realized by Bt cotton and Bollgard II Bt cotton over conventional cotton varieties (Table 6).

Table 6. Advantage of Bt cotton over conventional varieties

Cotton varietyNo.of pesticide spraysAmount spent on pesticide per acreProfit /acre* Conventional cotton -Rs. 2,900Rs. 4,784 Bt cotton (with one gene, cry 1 Ac)4.6 times less than conventionalRs. 2,000Rs. 12,541 Bollgard II Bt cotton (with Cry I Ac and Cry 2 Ab genes) 2 times less than Bt cottonRs. 1,300Rs. 15,136

* Bt seeds are 2.5 times costlier than conventional seeds

The results of other five studies conducted by public institutions and published recently are summarized in the table below to exemplify the benefits (Manjunath, 2008). Table 7 : Results of studies carried out by neutral agencies on the performance Of Bt-cotton in India

Publication / ParametersBennett et al., 2006Gandhi & Namboodiri (IIMA), 2006Qaim, 2006ICAR, 2006Ramgopal (Andhra Univ.) 2006 Period studied2002 & 200320042002-0320052005 Yield increase45 – 63%31%34%30.9%46% Reduction in chemical sprays3 to 139%6.8-4.2(50%)-55% Increased profit50%88%69%-110% Average profit / hectare-$250/ha$118/ha-$223/ha The results reveal that a) increase in cotton yield ranged from 30.9 to 63%, b) reduction in chemical sprays was from 39 to 55% and c) increase in profit to farmers ranged from 50 to 110% equivalent to about US$ 250 (Rs.10, 000) per hectare over the non-Bt cotton. It is reported that the average cotton yields in India which was 308kg/ha in 2002, prior to introduction of Bt-cotton, increased to 560kg/ha in 2007 (at least 50% of increase is attributed to Bt technology). Similarly, the national cotton production increased from mere 15.8 million bales in 2002 to 31.0 m bales in 2007. Exports of raw cotton, which was 0.9 m bales in 2005, increased to 4.7 m bales in 2006 and touched 4.8 m bales in 2007. Further, Bt-cotton contributed US$840 million or more to National farm economy. The studies carried out on Bt-cotton both before and after commercialization have clearly shown the following benefits: a) Higher cotton yield owing to effective control of bollworms, b) drastic reduction in the application of chemical insecticides for bollworm control, c) higher profit to farmers and d) conservation of biological control agents and other beneficial organisms. Thus, there have been social and economic benefits and intangible environmental benefits. The ever-increasing demand for Bt-cotton seeds is a clear reflection of farmers’ confidence in this technology and its benefits.

Conclusion

Use of bio-fertilizers, bio-pesticides and transgenic varieties in agriculture are showing increasing trend. Use of these things will reduce the utilization of chemical pesticides and pesticides; there by the harmful effects they produce will be reduced. Further increase in these eco-friendly biotech derived agri-inputs is essential to alleviate the environmental issues raised in conventional agriculture. References: Agriculture today (Jan,2005). The National Agricultural Magazine, Published by New Delhi. Alvares, C. (ed.) (1999) The organic farming source book. Published by The Other India Press/Third World Network, Goa (India). 366 p Bennett, R. et al., 2006. Farm-level economic performance of genetically modified cotton in Maharashtra, India. Review of Agricultural Economics, 28: 59-71. Gandhi, V. and Namboodiri, N.V., 2006. The adoption and economics of Bt-cotton in India: Preliminary results from a study. Indian Institute of Management (IIM), Ahmedabad, India. Working paper No. 2006-09-04, pages 1-27, Sept. 2006. Ghosh, Nilabja 2003. Promoting Bio-fertilizers in Indian Agriculture. Institute of Economic Growth Discussion Paper Series No. 69/2003. Delhi, India. GOI. 1989. Rules for the manufacture, use, import, export and storage of hazardous microorganisms/genetically engineered organisms or cells, issued by the Union Ministry of Environment and Forests, Govt. of India (Notification No. G.S.R. 1037 9E) dated 5 December 1989. GOI. 1990. Recombinant DNA safety guidelines. DBT, Union Ministry of Science and Technology, Govt. of India, p. 90. GOI. 1994. Revised guidelines for safety in biotechnology. DBT, Union Ministry of Science and Technology, Govt. of India. GOI. 1998. Revised guidelines for research in transgenic plants and guidelines for toxicity and allergenicity evaluation of transgenic seeds, plants and plant parts. DBT, Union Ministry of Science and Technology, Govt. of India, p. 92. ICAR (Indian Council of Agricultural Research), 2006. Frontline demonstrations of cotton – 2005-06. Mini Mission II, Technology Mission on cotton. ICAR, New Delhi. James, C. 2007. Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops: 2007. ISAAA Briefs No. 37, 225 pp. ISAAA: Ithaca, NY. Manjunath, T. M. (2008) Position Paper on Indian Bt cotton. Bt-Cotton in India: Remarkable Adoption and Benefits. http://www.cbd.int/doc/external/mop-04/fbae-cotton-en.doc. Manjunath, T. M. 2007. Q & A on Bt-Cotton in India. Answers to More than 70 Questions on All Aspects. All India Crop Biotechnology Association, New Delhi, 78 pp. Qaim, M. 2006. Adoption of Bt cotton and impact variability: Insights from India. Review of Agricultural Economics, 28: 59-71. Ramarethinam, S (2006) Conference on Agrochemicals. January 12-13, 2006, Mumbai. Speeches and Presentations-2006: FICCI (http://www.ficci.com/media-room/speeches-presentations/2006/speeches-2006.htm). Ramgopal, N., 2006. Economics of Bt-cotton vis–vis traditional cotton varieties – Study in Andhra Pradesh, Agro-Economic Research Centre, Andhra University, Andhra Pradesh.

Auther: K. Sarala, Senior Scientist (Biotechnology), Central Tobacco Research Institute, Rajahmundry-533 105, A.P.

IMPACT OF PESTICIDE USE ON INDIAN AGRICULTURE, HUMAN HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT

INTRODUCTION:- Tremendous benefits have been derived from the use of pesticides in forestry, public health and the domestic sphere – and, of course, in agriculture, a sector upon which the Indian economy is largely dependent. An area of 169 million hectares consists of permanently cropped land. Food grain production, which stood at a mere 50 million tonnes in 1948-49, had increased almost fourfold to 198 million tonnes by the end of 1996-97. This result has been achieved by the use of high-yield varieties of seeds, advanced irrigation technologies and agricultural chemicals1. The term pesticide covers a wide range of compounds including insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, rodenticides, molluscicides, nematocides, plant growth regulators and others. Among these, organochlorine (OC) insecticides, used successfully in controlling a number of diseases, such as malaria and typhus, were banned or restricted after the 1960s in most of the technologically advanced countries. The introduction of other synthetic insecticides – organophosphate (OP) insecticides in the 1960s, carbamates in 1970s and pyrethroids in 1980s and the introduction of herbicides and fungicides in 1970s – 1980s contributed greatly in pest control and agricultural output. Ideally a pesticide must be lethal to the targetted pests, but not to non-target species, including man. Unfortunately, this is not so the controversy of use and abuse of pesticides has surfaced. The rampant use of these chemicals, under the adage, -if little is good, a lot more will be better- has played havoc with human and other life forms. In India, the first report of poisoning due to pesticides was from Kerala in 1958, where over 100 people died after consuming wheat flour contaminated with parathion2. This prompted the Special Committee on Harmful Effects of Pesticides constituted by the ICAR to focus further attention on the problem3. Further, Carlson in 1962 warned that OC compounds could pollute the tissues of virtually every life form on the earth, the air, the lakes and the oceans, the fishes that live in them and the birds that feed on the fishes4. Later, the US National Academy of Sciences stated that the DDT metabolite, DDE causes eggshell thinning and that the bald eagle population in the United States declined primarily because of exposure to DDT and its metabolites5. Certain environmental chemicals including pesticides termed as endocrine disruptors are known to elicit their adverse effects by mimicking or antagonising natural hormones in the body and it has been postulated that their long-term, low-dose exposure are increasingly linked to human health effects such as immunosuppression, hormone disruption, diminished intelligence, reproductive abnormalities and cancer(6-8).

The pesticide industry in India The production of pesticides started in India in 1952 with the establishment of a plant for the production of BHC near Calcutta, and India is now the second largest manufacturer of pesticides in Asia after China and ranks twelfth globally9. There has been a steady growth in the production of technical grade pesticides in India, from 5,000 metric tonnes in 1958 to 102,240 metric tonnes in 1998. In 1996-97 the demand for pesticides in terms of value was estimated to be around Rs. 22 billion (USD 0.5 billion), which is about 2% of the total world market. The pattern of pesticide usage in India is different from that for the world in general. As can be seen from Figure 1, in India 76% of the pesticide used is insecticide, as against 44% globally9. The use of herbicides and fungicides is correspondingly less heavy. The main use of pesticides in India is for cotton crops (45%), followed by paddy and wheat. Figure 1. Consumption pattern of pesticides

BENEFITS OF PESTICIDES:- Improving Productivity:- Similarly outputs and productivity have increased dramatically in most countries, for example, wheat yields in the United Kingdom. Corn yields in the USA Increases in productivity have been due to several factors including use of fertiliser, better varieties and use of machinery. Pesticides have been an integral part of the process by reducing losses from the weeds, diseases and pests that can markedly reduce the amount of harvestable produce. Warren (1998) also drew attention to the spectacular increases in crop yields in the United States in the twentieth century. Webster et al. (1999) stated that “considerable economic losses” would be suffered without pesticide use and quantified the significant increases in yield and economic margin that result from pesticide use. Protect Crop losses/yield reduction:- In medium land rice even under puddle conditions during the critical period warranted an effective and economic weed control practice to prevent a reduction in rice yield due to weeds that ranged from 28 to 48% based on comparisons that included control (weedy) plots. Weeds reduce yield of dry land crops by 37-79%. Severe infestation of weeds particularly in early stage of crop establishment ultimately accounts for a yield reduction of 40%. Herbicides provided an economic and labour benefit. Suspicion about chemicals in food is fuelling sales of organic crops (MAF, 2006) but it is by no means certain whether organic production could sustain the world’s growing population (Oerke, 2004). Vector Disease Control:- Vector-borne diseases are most effectively tackled by killing the vector. Insecticides are often the only practical way. Insecticides are used to control the insects that spread deadly diseases such as malaria that results in an estimated 5000 deaths each day (Ross, 2005). Bhatia (2004) wrote that malaria is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the developing world and a major public health problem in India. Quality of Food:- Increasing evidence (Dietary Guidelines, 2005) shows that eating fruit and vegetables regularly reduces the risk of many cancers, high blood pressure, heart disease, diabetes, stroke, and other chronic diseases. Lewis et al. (2004, 2005) discussed the nutritional properties of apples and blueberries in the US diet and concluded that their high concentrations of antioxidants act as protectants against cancer, heart disease. Lewis attributed doubling in wild blueberry production and subsequent increases in consumption chiefly to herbicide use that improved weed control. Other area-Transport, Sport Complex, Building:- The transport sector makes extensive use of pesticides, particularly herbicides. Herbicides and insecticides are used to maintain the turf on sports pitches, cricket grounds and golf courses. Insecticides protect buildings and other wooden structures from damage by termites and wood boring insects.

HAZARDS OF PESTICIDES:-

Human Being:- If the credits of pesticides include enhanced economic potential in terms of increased production of food andfibre, and amelioration of vector-borne diseases, then their debits have resulted in serious health implications to man and his environment. There is now overwhelming evidence that some of these chemicals do pose potential risk to humans and other life forms and unwanted sideeffects to the environment (17-19). No segment of the population is completely protected against exposure to pesticides and the potentially serious health effects, though a disproportionate burden is shouldered by the people of developing countries and by high risk groups in each country20. The world-wide deaths and chronic illnesses due to pesticide poisoning number about 1 million per year21.

Potential Risk in Occupationally Exposed Subjects:- The high risk groups exposed to pesticides include the production workers, formulators, sprayers, mixers, loaders and agricultural farm workers. During manufacture and formulation, the ossibility of hazards may be more because the processes involved are not risk free. In industrial settings, the workers are at increased risk since they handle various toxic chemicals including pesticides, raw materials, toxic solvents and inert carriers. Workers exposed to HCH:- A study on workers (N=356) in four units manufacturing HCH revealed neurological symptoms (21%) which were related to the intensity of exposure22. Formulators exposed to combination of pesticides:- Observations confined to health surveillance in male formulators engaged in production of dust and liquid formulations of various pesticides (malathion, methyl parathion, DDT and lindane) in industrial settings of the unorganised sector revealed a high occurrence of generalized symptoms (headache, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, irritation of skin and eyes) besides psychological, neurological, cardiorespiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms coupled with low plasma holinesterase (ChE) activity 23. Health effects of methomyl on sprayers:- The magnitude of the toxicity risk involved in the spraying of methomyl, a carbamate insecticide, in field conditions was assessed by the NIOH 24. Significant changes were noticed in the ECG and the levels of serum LDH and ChE activities in the spraymen indicating the cardiotoxic effects of methomyl. Reproductive performance in sprayers:- Data on reproductive toxicity were collected from 1,106 couples when the males were associated with the spraying of pesticides (OC, OP and carbamates) in cotton fields25. Studies in malaria spraymen:- Study was initiated to evaluate the effects of a shortterm 16 week exposure in workers (N=216) spraying HCH in field conditions26. Food Commodities:-The UK Pesticide Residue Committee annual report (2002) showed that over 70% of the food in the UK contained no pesticide residues at all and only 1.09% contained residues above the statutory maximum residue levels (MRLs). It concluded that -none of these residues caused concern for people’s health-. John Bell, Head of the UK Food Standards Agency, a body that was set up to restore public confidence in food said (2005) that -Maximum residue levels are generally set well below safety limits. There are no safety concerns or we would take action immediately.” Yet these very small quantities of chemicals in our food, detected at ever lower levels due to increasingly sensitive laboratory equipment, are now easy targets for the media, despite overwhelming evidence that residues pose a very tiny risk to the people who eat farm food (Brown, 2004, US EPA), a risk that is anyway far outweighed by the benefits of a diet that includes fresh produce. Impact on Environment:-Pesticides can contaminate soil, water, turf, and other vegetation. In addition to killing insects or weeds, pesticides can be toxic to a host of other organisms including birds, fish, beneficial insects, and non-target plants. Insecticides are generally the most acutely toxic class of pesticides, but herbicides can also pose risks to non-target organisms. Soil Contamination:- Pesticides have various characteristics that determine how they act once in soil. Mobility refers to how much a pesticide will move around in the soil. The half life of a pesticide refers to the length of time it takes for half of the pesticide to degrade. Persistence refers to the length of time until all measurable residues of a pesticide are gone. Surface Water Contamination:- Pesticides can reach surface water through runoff from treated plants and soil. Contamination of water by pesticides is widespread. The results of a comprehensive set of studies done by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) on major river basins across the country in the early to mid- 90s yielded startling results. More than 90 percent of water and fish samples from all streams contained one, or more often, several pesticides. Pesticides were found in all samples from major rivers with mixed agricultural and urban land use influences, and 99 percent of samples of urban streams28. The USGS also found that concentrations of insecticides in urban streams commonly exceeded guidelines for protection of aquatic life. Twenty-three pesticides were detected in waterways in the Puget Sound Basin, including 17 herbicides. According to USGS, -in general more pesticides were detected in urban streams than in agricultural streams.- 29.

Ground Water Contamination:- Pesticides, including herbicides, can and do leach to contaminate ground water. According to the USGS, at least 143 different pesticides and 21 transformation products have been found in the ground water, including pesticides from every major chemical class. Over the past two decades, detections have been found in the ground water of more than 43 states30. Contamination of ground water is of concern because ground water supplies 50 percent of the U.S. population with Drinkingwater31. Once ground water is polluted with toxic chemicals, it may take many years for the contamination to dissipate or be cleaned up. Cleanup may also be very costly and complex, if not impossible(32-34). Contamination of Air, Soil, and Non-target Vegetation:- Pesticide sprays can directly hit non-target vegetation, or can drift or volatilize from the treated area and contaminate air, soil, and non-target plants. Some pesticide drift occurs during every application, even from ground equipment35. Drift can account for a loss of 2 to 25% of the chemical being applied, which can spread over a distance of a few yards to several hundred miles. There are thousands of reported complaints of off target spray drift each year in the U.S. 36. Many pesticides can volatilize (that is, they can evaporate from soil and foliage, move away from the application, and contaminate the environment.) 37, 38. As much as 80-90 percent of an applied pesticide can be volatilized within a few days of application39. Despite the fact that only limited research has been done on the topic, studies consistently find pesticide residues in air. According to the USGS, pesticides have been detected in the atmosphere in all areas of the nation sampled40. Nearly every pesticide investigated has been detected in rain, air, fog, or snow across the nation at different times of the year41. Many pesticides have been detected in air at more than half the sites sampled nationwide. Harmful Effects of Pesticides on Non-target Organisms:- Pesticides are found as common contaminants in soil, air, and water, and on non-target vegetation in our urban landscapes. Once there, they can harm plants and animals ranging from beneficial soil microorganisms and insects, non-target plants, fish, birds, and other wildlife. Beneficial Soil Microorganisms:- One spoonful of healthy soil has millions of tiny organisms including fungi, bacteria, and a host of others. These microorganisms play a key role in helping plants utilize soil nutrients needed to grow and thrive. Microorganisms also help soil store water and nutrients, regulate water flow, and filter pollutants38. The heavy treatment of soil with pesticides can cause populations of beneficial soil microorganisms to decline. According to soil scientist Dr. Elaine Ingham, -If we lose both bacteria and fungi, then the soil degrades. Overuse of chemical fertilizers and pesticides have effects on the soil organisms that are similar to human overuse of antibiotics. Indiscriminate use of chemicals might work for a few years, but after awhile, there aren’t enough beneficial soil organisms to hold onto the nutrients.- 40.

CONCLUSION:- Pesticides are often considered a quick, easy, and inexpensive solution for controlling weeds and insect pests in urban landscapes. However, pesticide use comes at a significant cost. Pesticides have contaminated almost every part of our environment. Pesticide residues are found in soil and air, and in surface and ground water across the nation, and urban pesticide uses contribute to the problem. Pesticide contamination poses significant risks to the environment and non-target organisms ranging from beneficial soil microorganisms, to insects, plants, fish, and birds. Contrary to common misconceptions, even herbicides can cause harm to the environment. In fact, weed killers can be especially problematic because they are used in relatively large volumes. The best way to reduce pesticide contamination (and the harm it causes) in our environment is for all of us to do our part to use safer, nonchemical pest control (including weed control) methods.

References:- 1. Employment Information: Indian Labour Statistics 1994. Chandigarh: Labour Bureau, Ministry of Labour, 1996. 2. Karunakaran, (1958), C.O. The Kerala food poisoning. J Indian Med Assoc, 31: 204,. 3. Eds. A.M. Wadhwani and I.J. Lall. (1972) Harmful Effects of Pesticides. Report of the Special Committee of ICAR, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, p. 44,.

4. Carlson, R. (1962) Silent Spring. Houghton-Mifflin Co, Boston,.

5. Liroff, R.A. (2000) Balancing risks of DDT and malaria in the global POPs treaty. Pestic Safety News 4: 3,.

6. Crisp, T.M., Clegg, E.D., Cooper, R.L., Wood, W.P., Anderson, D.G., Baeteke, K.P., Hoffmann, J.L., Morrow, M.S., Rodier, D.J., Schaeffer, J.E., Touart, L.W., Zeeman, M.G. and Patel, Y.M. (1998) Environmental endocrine disruption: An effects assessment and analysis. Environ Health Perspect, 106: 11,.

7. Hurley, P.M., Hill, R.N. and Whiting, R.J. (1998) Mode of carcinogenic action of pesticides inducing thyroid follicular cell tumours in rodents. Environ Health Perspect 106: 437,.

8. Brouwer, A., Longnecker, M.P., Birnbaum, L.S., Cogliano, J., Kostyniak, P., Moore, J., Schantz, S. and Winneke, G. (1999) Characterization of potential endocrine related health effects at lowdose levels of exposure to PCBs. Environ Health Perspect 107:639,. 9. Mathur, S.C. (1999) Future of Indian pesticides industry in next millennium. Pesticide Information;XXIV(4):9-23. 10. Warren, G.F. (1998) Spectacular Increases in Crop Yields in the United States in the Twentieth Century, Weed Technology, Vol. 12, P.752,. 11. Webster, J.P.G., R.G. Bowles, and N.T. Williams (1999) Estimating the Economic Benefits of Alternative Pesticide Usage Scenarios: Wheat Production in the United Kingdom, Crop Production, Vol. 18, P.83..

12. MAF (Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry) New Zealand. Motivation for Growing Organic Products at http://www.maf.govt.nz/mafnet/rural-nz/sustainable-resourceuse/organic-production/organic-farming-in-nz/org30004.htm 13. Oerke, E.C. and Dehne, H.W. (2004) Safeguarding Production – Losses in Major Crops and the Role of Crop Protection, Crop Protection, Vol. 23, P.275.. 14. Ross, G., (2005) Risks and benefits of DDT, The Lancet, Vol. 366, No.9499, P.1771November ,. 15. Lewis, Nancy M., Jamie Ruud, (2005) Blueberries in the American Diet, Nutrition Today, Vol. 40, No.2, P.92March-April, 16. Dietary guidelines for Americans (2005). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Department of Agriculture 17. Forget, G. (1993) Balancing the need for pesticides with the risk to human health. In: Impact of Pesticide Use on Health in Developing Countries. Eds. G. Forget, T. Goodman and A. de Villiers, IDRC, Ottawa, p. 2,

18. Igbedioh, S.O. (1991) Effects of agricultural pesticides on humans, animals and higher plants in developing countries. Arch Environ Health 46: 218,.

19. Jeyaratnam, J. (1985) Health problems of pesticide usage in the third world. BMJ 42: 505,.

20. WHO. Public Health Impact of Pesticides Used in Agriculture. World Health Organization, Geneva, p. 88, (1990).

21. Environews Forum. Killer environment. Environ Health Perspect 107: A62, (1999).

22. Nigam, S.K., Karnik, A.B., Chattopadhyay, P., Lakkad, B.C., Venkaiah, K. and Kashyap, S.K. (1993) Clinical and biochemical investigations to evolve early diagnosis in workers involved in the manufacture of hexachlorocyclohexane. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 65: S193,.

23. Gupta, S.K., Jani, J.P., Saiyed, H.N. and Kashyap, S.K. (1984) Health hazards in pesticide formulators exposed to a combination of pesticides. Indian J Med Res, 79: 666,

24. Saiyed, H.N., Sadhu, H.G., Bhatnagar, V.K., Dewan, A, Venkaiah, K. and Kashyap, S.K. (1992) Cardiac toxicity following short term exposure to methomyl in spraymen and rabbits. Hum Exp Toxicol, 11: 93,.

25. Rupa, D.S., Reddy, P.P. and Reddy, O.S. (1991) Reproductive performance in population exposed to pesticides in cotton fields in India. Environ Res 55: 123,.

26. Gupta, S.K., Parikh. J.R., Shah, M.P., Chatterjee, S.K. and Kashyap, S.K. (1982) Changes in serum exachlorocyclohexane (HCH) residues in malaria spraymen after short term occupational exposure. Arch Environ Health 37: 41,.

27. Brown, Ian UK Pesticides Residue Committee Report (2004) (available online http://www.pesticides.gov.uk/uploadedfiles/Web_Assets/PRC/PRCannualreport2004 .pdf also available on request). 28. . Bortleson, G. and D. Davis. (1987-1995). U.S. Geological Survey & Washington State Department of Ecology. Pesticides in selected small streams in the Puget Sound Basin. pg. 1-4.

29. US Department of the Interior. (1995). Pesticides in ground water: current understanding of distribution and major influences. U.S. Geological Survey. National Water Quality Assessment. Factsheet number FS-244-95.

30. Waskom, R. (1994). Best management practices for private well protection. Colorado State Univ. Cooperative Extension (August). http://hermes.ecn.purdue.edu:8001/cgi/ convertwq?7488.

31. O’Neil, W. and Raucher, R. (1998). Groundwater public policy leaflet series #4: The costs of groundwater contamination. Wayzata, MN:Groundwater Policy Education Project. http:// www.dnr.state.wi.us/org/water/dwg/gw/costofgw.htm (Aug.)

32. US EPA. (2001). Managing small-scale application of pesticides to prevent contamination of drinking water. Water protection practices bulletin, Washington, DC: Office of Water (July). EPA 816-F-01-031.

33. Johnson, J. and Ware, W.G. (1991). Pesticide litigation manual 1992 edition. Clark Boardman Callaghan Environmental Law Series, New York, NY. 65. US EPA. 1999. Spray drift of pesticides. Washington, DC: Office of Pesticide Programs (December). http:// www.epa.gov/pesticides/citizens/spraydrift.htm#1.

34. US EPA. (1999). Spray drift of pesticides. Washington, DC:Office of Pesticide Programs (December). http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/citizens/spraydrift.htm#1.

35. Glotfelty and Schomburg. (1989). Volatilization of pesticides from soil in Reactions and Movements of organic chemicals in soil. Eds. BL Sawhney and K. Brown. Madison, WI: Soil Science Society of America Special Pub.

36 . Que, S. et al. (1975). Factors effecting the volatility of DDT, dieldrin, and dimethylamine salt of (2,4-dichlorophenoxy) acetic acid (2,4-D) from leaf and glass surfaces. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 13(3):284-290.

37 . USGS. (1995). Pesticides in the atmosphere: current understanding of distribution and major influences. Fact Sheet FS- 152-95. http://water.wr.usgs.gov/pnsp/atmos/

38. Marx, J et al. (1999). The relationship between soil and water, how soil amendments and compost can aid in salmon recovery. Soils for Salmon 1-18.

39. . Majewski, M. and P. Capel. (1995). Pesticides in the atmosphere: distribution, trends, and governing factors. Volume one, Pesticides in the Hydrologic System. Ann Arbor Press Inc. pg. 118.

40. Savonen, C. (1997). Soil microorganisms object of new OSU service. Good Fruit Grower. http://www.goodfruit.com/archive/ 1995/6other.html.

41. U.S. Geological Survey. (1999). The quality of our nation’s waters – nutrients and pesticides. Circular 1225. Reston VA: USGS. http://water.usgs.gov/pubs/circ/circ1225/

An Analysis of Anita Desais The Accompanist

An Analysis of Anita Desai’s -The Accompanist’ BY DR. RAM SHARMA SENIOR LECTURER IN ENGLISH J.V.P.G COLLEGE, BARAUT, BAGHPAT, U.P. AND Dr.Anshu Bhardwaj(Sharma) Senior Lecturer in English Depts. Arya College of Engineering & Information Technology SP-42,RIICO Industrial Area Kukas ,Jaipur

Anita Desai, short listed three times for the Booker Prize and honoured by the Padam Shri for her literary forte, is one of the literary luminaries of the contemporary Indian fiction writing in English and a prolific post colonial writer who like Virginia Woolf deals with the psychology of mind and goes deep into the heart of her characters to expose their inner feelings and dig out the hidden questions that spring at the core of their heart and ,thus, she appears travelling with the modernist sensibilities of T.S. Eliot and Faulkner. The author of the highly acclaimed novel -Fire On The Mountain’ and six other novels, has shown her craftsmanship even in the shorter fiction i.e., short stories rather than her novels. It is true that she finds the short story form -much less satisfying-1 than the novel ,yet she keeps on writing story as she started writing it -as early as her college days.-2 In her short stories her style shows to even more advantage than in her novels. Her short stories are witty, evocative, tender and perceptive and perfect in revealing her skill and dexterity in handling this genre. Not only her novels but her short stories also are the great exposure of her psychological perspect.

Desai’s -The Accompanist’, an extract of -Games At Twlight’ (1978) delineates the emotional state of a tanpura player who, in this story, proves a true shishy and a true accompanist and is known as Bhaiya or the accompanist. The story is woven in the thread of true human relationship between ustad Rahim Khan,a former classical musician and Bhaiya ,the tanpura player who accompanies him in his performance having the quality of love and devotion.

Ajit and Bhola ,Bhaiya’s childhood friends appear in the story as Mephistophilis in Marlowe’s -Dr. Faustus’, whose business is to corrupt ,mislead and caution and dissuades Dr .Faustus from his right path. They visited the accompanist almost two decades and provoked him to come out of the shadows of his master Rahim khan and create his own identity by being a soloist. They stated:

You even know how to play the sarod and the veena. You could be a great Ustad yourself ,with some practice-why do you spend your life sitting at the back stage and playing that idiotic Tanpura while someone else takes all the fame and all the money from you.

The oft-quoted lines explain that for years he was playing the tanpura for the ustad Rahim Khan but did not get any recognition. The attention was grabbed by the ustad and all these years Bhaiya was hidden behind him on the stage without any notice of his presence. In view of his friends he must have a life of obscurity and establish himself as a full fledged musician that will bring to him more fame and more money than the few pennies given by the ustad for playing the tanpura. These suggestions went unheared and the accompanist bridled the horses (the senses).Desai’s protagonists are not as weak as Marlowe’s who come under the influence of corrupted people like Mephistophilis .Desai’s accompanist knows the art of satisfaction within his limited means.(Contentment is happiness.) His friends enticed the accompanist for coming out of his ustad’s company and he should establish himself as an independent musician of a more worthy instrument than the tanpura but he realized the great glory of his ustad’s company and got spiritual wealth through this company. He remarks, -When I first met my Ustad,I was a boy of fifteen-a stupid, backward boy as my father had often told me I was.- At his father’s instruction he delivered the tanpura to ustad Rahim Khan. Delivering it to ustad he -saw greatness in his face, the calm and wisdom and kindness of a true leader- and immediately intented to deliver his whole life into his hands along with the tanpura. Later on the words -Play for me- uttered by the ustad made him stunned and brought changes in his life. In fact, these words were new-life giver to him as they created him, created his life, gave it form and distinction and purpose. The accompanist adds, -It was the moment of my birth and he was both my father and my mother to me.-

We become the victims of desires of the senses. It is controlled by the tremendous will power or by following the suggestions of the supreme bliss which Dr.Faustus felt. We get the exposure of the mind of the speaker when he thinks two ways of taking action. First he would establish his own identity by ignoring ustad’s company as his childhood friends suggested. Second he would be his accompanist for ever.

In Anita Desai’s writings the inner climate, the climate of sensibility is more compelling than the visible action. As Iyengar puts it, -Her forte- is the exploration of sensibility-the particulary kind of modern Indian sensibility that is ill at ease among the barbarians and the philistines, the anarchists and amoralising.-3 In the present story the accompanist was persuaded by the senseless talks of his friends, Ajit and Bhola who were empty headed and leading him into it. In real sense the accompanist was not convinced with the ugly thoughts of his friends but still he was compelled to think whether he could really be a front-rank musician or a ustad himself. The lines reveal his inner conflict as –I thought, Are they right? or the sarod, or the veena? And become an ustad myself ?- He found himself in delimn and tries to analyse the situation. For this purpose he goes on thinking about the futility of the time he had spent with his ustad and states, -Now these boys who had heard me play in the dark hall of our house have been an ustad myself, sat in the centre of the stage, played for great audiences and been applauded for my performances. Were they right? Was this true? Had I wasted my life?- Then he finds the exposure of his mind after some soul-searching that he can never become -ustad’ in his own life. This idea is revealed in these lines, -Yes, anyone could play the tanpura for him, do what I do. But he did not take anyone else, he chose me. He gave me my destiny, my life,- and thus, the alchemic touch of the master turned the crude and base boy into a noble and gentle accompanist who now regards him as his God on earth and feels, -Does a mortal refuse God?-

Our mind has various waves of thoughts which sometimes deviate us from our right path and we begin to doubt on our doings and become sad as the accompanist appears whispering, -Had I wasted my life?- As the feelings of repentance enter the mind of the person, he mends his short comings, his mind becomes pure and purged and then he realizes extreme love. The accompanist confesses, -Only once I was shaken out my contentment, my complacency. I am ashamed to reveal it to you. It was so foolish of me .- Further he holds the view:

Ours is a word formed and defined and enclosed not so much by music, however, a by a human relationship on solid ground level-the relationship of love.

The idea discussed in the above line describes the relationship between the accompanist and the ustad. The accompanist feels that their relationship is not only due to the music they played together, instead it was due to story human ties. The relationship developed due to the inspiration and guidance he received from the ustad who had framed his destiny it was further strengthened due to his love and devotion to the man he admired the most in his life.

The best ingredients of Desai’s style in short stories are childhood memories and the haunting feelings surging out of a romantic heart. In view of Iyengar, -As we remain mesmorised by Anita Desai’s verbal artistry and her uncanny evocation of atmosphere ,her tale unfalteringly glides by and we force a rendition of the veil of the realm of personal experience and attain the desired finale of acceptance.-4

Childhood memories are also recollected by the accompanist when his trust was shaken out due to the provoking of his childhood friends. He cried continuously. Everything appeared to be unpleasant and evil and then he recollected the past incidents of his life when he was a vagarant or a vagabond who was without hope, without aim and without destination and was passing a meaningless life. He goes back to his childhood days and reminiscences how other things were of importance to him . Music was worshipped in his family. The central hall of his house was famous for the musical instruments made by both his father and his grand father . Cordantly and discordantly sound of his music could be heared. The accompanist himself had strong likeness for music and also started learning all ragas and raginis from his father ,Mishraji at the age of four . His father, a maker of musical instruments ,tasted his knowledge with rapid persistent questioning in his unmusical grating voice and frequently grabbed his ears and pulled it during his teaching. From such lessons he felt the need to escape and managed several times a day. He was habitual of playing gulli-danda and kho and marbles with mischievous boys of his mohalla.He was fond of watching movies of Nargis and Meena Kumari who were the Queens of heaven for him. In order to fulfill his desires he never hesitated in stealing the money from his mother or father.His mouth watered for -halwa- and -jalebis- made by his mother and used to steal his brother’s and sister’s share for which he was beaten and cursed by the whole family. It was the life which he was leading before joining the musical band of ustad Rahim Khan at the age of fifteen.He is thirty years old now and for fifteen years he has been serving his ustad being his true accompanist.

Desai’s -The Accompanist’ elaborates the beautiful relationship between Guru and Shishy and proves it more important than other relationships-mother and son, father and son, brother and sister, husband and wife etc. The accompanist has strong likeness for the sweets made by his mother instead of her. -How I loved my mother’s sweetmeats, too rather more.- What her picture he has in his life is clear in further statement, -I did the non-descript ,mumbling ,bald woman who made them.. She never came to life for me. She lived some obscure, indoor life, unhealthy and curtained, undemanding and uninviting.- He considers her as a wonderful cook. His father had been a hard taskmaster who would religiously wake up him in the early hours of morning and train him in music. He wanted his son to become a musician not an instrument maker. With this view he gave him lessons in playing the Tanpura, Harmonium, Sitar and the Tabla and taught him all ragas and raginis by testing his knowledge with persistent questioning. It was the time when he was crazy for cinemas and playing marbles and had not so much likening for music. But when he was caught in a situation , he stood up to it. When his brain was washed by his friends, he began to doubt his father and recalled him by saying, -My father had taught me to play all these instruments and disciplined me severely ,but he had never praised me or suggested I could become a front-rank musician. I had learnt to play instruments as the son of a carpenter—But I had practiced on these instruments and played the ragas he taught me to play without thinking of it as an art or of myself as an artist. Perhaps I was a stupid, backward boy .My father always said so.- Such attitude towards his father the accompanist has .Stealing the shares of his brother and sister proves him unkindly ,irresponsible ,unsociable and naughty boy. Now he is married and has become the man of the world but has no interest in his married life while in his childhood he was crazy for the street beauties and the cinema heroines and put himself in the place of their screen lovers. He considers that he married for his mother’s pleasure, -I even married. That is, my mother managed to marry me off to some neighbour;s daughter of whom she was fond. The girl lived with her. I seldom visited her. I can barely remember her name, her face.- Whenever he gets the chance to go home for a few days to rest, he desires of cutting short these holidays and returning to his house in the city to practice.

The love for music and ustad Rahim Khan changed everything in his life and he gave up all his childhood pleasures and pranks. -All fell away from me ,all disappeared in the shadows on the other side.- Ustad – took the place of – his – mother’ s sweet halwa ,the cinema heroines, the street beauties ,marbles and stolen money.- Ustad Rahim Khan’s company brought several changes in his life and gave birth to him as Bhaiya, the tanpura player. All his attractions regarding playing with the mischievous boys of mohalla and going to cinema disappeared. All his follies and stupidities or bad habits disappeared for ever .Music has taken their place and become the goal of his life.He is fully satisfied with this goal. Thus he devoted his whole life to ustad and became his true friend and accompanist because he was nothing. -It was Ustad Rahim Khan who saw me, hiding awkwardly in the shadows of an empty hall with a tanpura in my hands and called me to come to him and showed me what to do with my life. I owe everything to him, my very life to him.- Thus he decided to remain royal in the same position giving the ustad the base material on which he would compose his music.

The intimacy between the accompanist and his ustad could not be perceived or understood by his childhood friends and their act of provoking him against his ustad failed and cultivated in him a strong sense of commitment towards his ustad. Having the feelings of self-assured, poised and self-satisfed he hired a tonga and asked the driver to take him to his ustad, his creator. Only one thing was going in his heart.

I maintain I am his true accompanist, certainly his true friend.

The feelings of the accompanist to ustad Rahim Khan are expressed in the above line. He feels that he always plays the notes given by the ustad repeadly and he builds his music on the background provided by him. Thus he feels he is a true accompanist. Above all he never expects anything and never tries to compete in the performance with him. He never seeks the attention of the audience ,their attention is always on the ustad ,whenever his ustad suffers with the hacking cough in a concert ,he always asks the accompanist to prepare the opium to quieten it, these points make him a true friend as well.

Tha accompanist stands for pure love and selfless service. When the ustad asked him, -Do you play? – These words contain a sense of security and relief, love and affection which were absence in his life. As a matter of fact, love is above money, above all the material gains and achievements. About the power of love, Coleridge has rightly observed:

All thoughts ,all passions, all delights Whatever stire this mortal frame Are all but ministers of love And feed their sacred flame. 5 The accompanist keeps on showing his true love and service to the ustad without any wish for gaining anything in return. -We have traveled all over India and played in every city, at every season. It is his life and mine. We share this life, this music, this following. What else can these possibly be for me in this world?-

It is interesting to note that Desai has beautifully presented the inner conflicts of the accompanist and also his victory over them. In fact, she believes in dealing with the mind and the soul of a character ,his inner workings and hidden and silent thoughts rather than his outer appearances .Similiarly, -The Accompanist’ has a fine fusion of feelings and form and proves itself a great example of Desai’s art and craftsmanship since her main business as a fiction writer is to expose the truth. Thus the story accentuates the importance of selfless love, devotion, dedication and gratitude in human relationship.

References: All the references of Desai’s -The Accompanist’ in -Games at Twilight and Other Stories’, New Delhi, Allied, and London: Heinemann,1078.

1.Quote in Jasbir Jain’s Interview with Anita Desai on 16th November 1979,Jasbir Jain, Stairs to the Attic: The Novels of Anita Desai ( Printwell Publishers,Jaipur,1987,p.13). 2.Ibid,.p.8. 3.Srinivas Iyengar, K.R., Indian Writing In English, New Delhi, Sterling Publishers Pvt.Ltd;1985,p.464. 4.Ibid.,p.745. 5.Coleridge ,S.T., -Love’ in Golden Treasury,op.cit,p.171.

The Development Of Jazz Music Along The Periods (iii)

Jazz music that was rooted in the blues, evolved into New Orleans, RAG time, boogie woogie, dixie and swing. Then, in the early decades of the 1940s, jazz entered be bop era. Be bop music was the outlet of the Negro protest in the United States. The atmosphere of World War II made all of society and the musicians frustrated.

Therefore, in a period of 40s, the arcing of new musical forms – one of them was jump band – occurred. Jump band itself was the form of music group that brought the band music of humor and usually contained elements of porn in the lyrics. Then, jump band music branched out into R & B and inspired the form of rock’n’roll that was also a continuation of the development of boogie woogie in the direction of pop or rock music.

In be bop jazz, the limits that were applied in swing jazz were de-emphasized. Be bop jazz was also more expressive and inclined to be more progressive. Thus, since the time, progressive jazz term emerged and jazz music entered into the modern jazz era.

The emergence of rock music and its popularity throughout the world in 1946 were the toughest rival of jazz to keep going and growing. Finally, be bop collapsed and jazz became cool, so came the cool jazz term. Cool jazz lasted from 1949 until 1951. In those days, jazz experienced transition because of pressured by the popularity of rock music.

In modern jazz era or the ’60s era, a new form of music – called as soul and funk – arose. Soul music arose from the influence of the gospel church with blues influence. Meanwhile, funk music had ‘louder than a pin prick’ meaning. It was understood associated with the worldliness because funk was more inclined to commercial.

In addition to these musical forms, there was form of music that was still loyal to the major groove of jazz, eventually called as the hard bop.

Ethiopian Music

The music of Ethiopia is extremely diverse, with each of Ethiopia’s ethnic groups being associated with unique sounds. Some forms of traditional music are strongly influenced by folk music from elsewhere in the Horn of Africa, especially Somalia. However, Ethiopian religious music also has an ancient Christian element, traced to Yared, who lived during the reign of Gabra Masqal. In northeastern Ethiopia, in Wollo, a Muslim musical form called manzuma developed. Sung in Amharic, manzuma has spread to Harar and Jimma, where it is now sung in the Oromo language. In the Ethiopian Highlands, traditional secular music is played by itinerant musicians called azmaris, who are regarded with both suspicion and respect in Ethiopian society

The music of the highlands uses a unique modal system called qenet, of which there are four main modes: tezeta, bati, ambassel, and anchihoy. Three additional modes are variations on the above: tezeta minor, bati major, and bati minor. Some songs take the name of their qenet, such as tezeta, a song of reminiscence. When played on traditional instruments, these modes are generally not tempered (that is, the pitches may deviate slightly from the Western-tempered tuning system), but when played on Western instruments such as pianos and guitars, they are played using the Western-tempered tuning system.

Highland music is generally monophonic or heterophonic. Outside of the highlands, some music is polyphonic; Dorze polyphonic singing (edho) may employ up to five parts, Majangir four parts.

Ethiopia is a musically traditional country. Of course, popular music is played, recorded and listened to, but most musicians also sing traditional songs, and most audiences choose to listen to both popular and traditional styles. A long-standing popular musical tradition in Ethiopia was that of brass bands, imported from Jerusalem in the form of forty Armenian orphans (Arba Lijoch) during the reign of Haile Selassie. This band, which arrived in Addis Ababa on September 6, 1924, became the first official orchestra of Ethiopia. By the end of World War II, large orchestras accompanied singers; the most prominent orchestras were the Army Band, Police Band, and Imperial Bodyguard Band. Most of these bands were trained by Europeans or Armenians.

From the 1950s to the 1970s, Ethiopian popular musicians included Bizunesh Bekele, Mahmoud Ahmed, Alemayehu Eshete, Hirut Bekele, Ali Birra, Ayalew Mesfin, Kiros Alemayehu, Muluken Melesse and Tilahun Gessesse, while popular folk musicians included Alemu Aga, Kassa Tessema, Ketema Makonnen, Asnaketch Worku, and Mary Armede. Perhaps the most influential musician of the period, however, was Ethio-jazz innovator Mulatu Astatke. Amha Records, Kaifa Records, and Philips-Ethiopia were prominent Ethiopian record labels during this era. Since 1997, Buda Musique’s Ethiopiques series has compiled many of these singles and albums on compact disc.

During the 1980s, the Derg controlled Ethiopia, and emigration became almost impossible. Musicians during this period included Ethio Stars, Wallias Band and Roha Band, though the singer Neway Debebe was most popular. He helped to popularize the use of seminna-werq (wax and gold, a poetic form of double entendre) in music (previously only used in qin, or poetry) that often enabled singers to criticize the government without upsetting the censors.